Automatic Hydraulic Press Machines; How Do They Work?

by Gary Fain

A press is forming or fabricating machine that uses pressure to change the shape and form of a product. Press machines can be applied in a wide range of fabrication processes, like forging and stamping. The machines come in different styles and designs. The most popular types of presses are; mechanical, pneumatic, and hydraulic press machines. A hydraulic press machine, sometimes known as an automatic hydraulic press machine, is a device that uses liquid to transfer pressure during the forming process. This write-up focuses on how hydraulic press machines work.

How does an automatic hydraulic press machine work?

The first thing you should understand about how automatic hydraulic press machines work is that they apply Pascal’s law. The law states that pressure applied to a confined liquid causes a force transmitted equally over the rest of the liquid.

In a hydraulic press, a diffident force is usually applied to a small area of fluid. The fluid is then moved to a different location within the same channel. Thanks to Pascal’s law, the force is also transported as the fluid moves. A larger area generates a magnified mechanical force which is then transmitted to the rest of the channel via hydraulic pressure.

In this case, the gain effect of the hydraulic pressure is similar to the mechanical gain. On the other hand, the force increase does not cause a work gain.

What happens is that an oil pump transmits the hydraulic oil to the joined casing valve blocks. It is then assigned to the chambers above and below the cylinder. This is done via two valves, the one-way and the relief valve. The action of the high-pressure oil causes the oil cylinder to move up and down.

In hydraulic presses, a working medium plays a significant role. The primary function of a working medium is to help with pressure transfer. However, it is also used to ensure that all the working parts of the machine are sensitive. The working medium ensures that the parts are durable and there is less leakage in the machine. The best working medium should feature the following characteristics;

  • Anti-rust
  • Incredible lubrication
  • Ideal fluidity
  • Low compressibility to improve the transmission efficiency
  • The working medium should be easy to seal
  • It should offer stable performance
  • It should have a long life-span and not suffer deterioration in the process

Where are automatic hydraulic press machines used?

The applications of automatic hydraulic press machines are mostly limitless. This means that they are pretty diverse, and there are no limits on where they can be used. For instance, the machines can be used in the medical or laboratory industries, metalworks, jewelry, and machine-manufacturing fields. It is worth mentioning that the applications may require varying types of machines.


Hydraulic presses depend on fluids for their performance. The most common fluids used in hydraulic presses are water and oil. The oils may differ from one machine to the next. The type of fluid-applied is usually carefully selected depending on the machine design and the type of application

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